Education

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Contents Page
1) Introduction
2) A critical review of competencies, skills, theories and approaches 3) Bureaucratic Views
4) Theory X and Theory Y
5) The Systems Theory
6) The Contingency Theory
7) Role Theory
8) Paradigm 1: Christian scientific education management
9) Paradigm 2: Education management
10) Paradigm 3: Education governance and management
11) Collegiality Theory
12) What should Effective Educational Management look like in schools? 13) Conclusion
14) Reference Page

1) Introduction:
Schools in South Africa are a unique kind of organisation, with clearly defined goals and policies. Schools function through a hierarchical structure of authority whereby every aspect of the school needs to function accordingly. Schools are also, a dynamic and ever- changing system continually responding to influences both externally and internally. In order for schools to render an effective service of education certain structures need to be in place, and effective undertakings of various management functions need to be prioritised (Naidu, 2008:74). ‘Educational organisations, are human endeavours’ (Owens and Valensky, 2011: 84), and to deal with them effectively is to deal with human social systems. Management effectiveness in schools relates to competencies, skills and approaches. However, school management teams interventions which are aimed at improving their current situations, lack results as managers continually rely upon management approaches that are not effective for improving their organisations. This essay consists of various components. Firstly it critically discusses competencies, skills and approaches of Educational Management and Organisational Theory. Once these have been discoursed it aims to discuss the improvement of management in struggling dysfunctional schools by adopting and displaying which management approach and theories will underpin my task teams undertaking by improving the breakdown of management in dysfunctional schools in the Province. 2) A critical review of competencies, skills, theories and approaches The following theories and approaches display the current thinking on Educational Management as well as the behaviour of people within their organisational structures. The approaches not only typify philosophy and writing about education management and organisational behaviour, they shape and inform practice within schools. Organisational theory ‘is devoted to the belief that the people in the organisation tend to shape the structure of the organisation. This focuses attention on the impact of the behaviour of people – in the processes of making decisions, leading, and dealing with conflict – on the structure, values, and customs of organisations’ (Owens and Valensky, 2011:85). It is clear that there is no single all-embracing theory of education management and ‘there is no one best way to organise and manage people in all circumstances, there are certain designs of organisational structure and certain management methods that can be identified as being most effective under specific situational contingencies’ (Owens and Valensky, 2001:105) Theories are thus useful for influencing practices as they suggest new ways in which events and situations can be perceived. This review begins by discussing the Organisational Theories which for over half a century has been the interaction between organisational structure and people. I will highlight two major perspectives of Organisational Theory namely the Traditional Bureaucratic Theory and the more recent human resources theory, I will review the current thinking of South African Educational Management bridging the theories and approaches to educational management. 3) Bureaucratic Views

This model can be related to the work of Weber (1989) who argued that ‘bureaucracy is the most effective form of management’. He claims it is the highest form of efficiency and is the most rational means of carrying out imperative...
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