Diabetes

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DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus is one of common metabolic diseases in the U.S.A. The patients who diagnosed with diabetes mellitus have higher glucose level in the blood than normal. The number of people having diabetes has been more than doubled and increased in all age groups between 1981 and 2002. Diabetes affects physically, socially and economically to people has it. It has been the top reasons of nontraumatic amputation and blindness to working age adults and end stage renal disease. Also, it the third top cause of death. The major risk factors for diabetes mellitus are family history, obesity, race, ethnity, older age, previously diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, HDL cholesterol level lower than 35mg/Dl , triglyceride level greater than 250mg/Dl, history of gestational diabetes and delivery of babies over 9lb. (Smeltzer, 1197)

There are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus associated with other conditions or syndromes. There are different causes, clinical courses and treatments. Type 1 diabetes affects about 5 to 10 percent of people and it is diagnosed before 30 years old. It is characterized by decreased insulin production, unchecked glucose production by the liver and fasting hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes affects about 90 to 95 percent of the people with diabetes and it is usually diagnosed who are older than 30 years old and obese people. Two major problems with the type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any severity of glucose intolerance with it onset during pregnancy. (Smeltzer, 1196-1197) Insulin which is secreted by beta cells is an anabolic or storage hormone. Insulin plays important role moving glucose from blood into muscle, liver and fat cells. It transports and metabolizes glucose for energy, stimulates storage of glucose in the liver and muscle, signals the liver to stop the release of glucose, enhances...